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Jeffrey M. Drazen, MD, Editor-in-Chief, NEJM Group

NEJM Knowledge+ Internal Medicine Board Review Editors

Founding Editor
Graham T. McMahon, MD, MMSc

Senior Reviewer
Allan S. Brett, MD

Deputy Reviewer
C. Christopher Smith, MD

Associate Reviewers
Daniel P. Hunt, MD; Stephen Joseph Huot, MD, PhD; Sylvia Cheney McKean, MD; Stuart B. Mushlin, MD; Daniel Randall, MD, MPH

Managing Editor
Catherine Tomeo Ryan

Production Editor
Josette Akresh-Gonzales

Section Editors

Cardiology
Michael D. White, MD
Hematology & Oncology
Dan L. Longo, MD
Pulmonology
Patricia A. Kritek, MD, EdM
Infectious Disease
Rajesh T. Gandhi, MD
Gastroenterology
Alan C. Moss, MD
Endocrinology
Melissa Cavaghan, MD
Rheumatology
Derrick J. Todd, MD, PhD
Nephrology/Urology
Melanie P. Hoenig, MD
Andrew A. Wagner, MD
Neurology
John Betjemann, MD
Psychiatry
Michael Craig Miller, MD
Dermatology
Kelly M. Cordoro, MD
Allergy/Immunology
Rebecca Gruchalla, MD, PhD
Otolaryngology
David M. Vernick, MD
OB/GYN
Megan J. Bray, MD
Ophthalmology
Bradford J. Shingleton, MD

Past Editors

Alexander M. Djuricich, MD (Education Editor, 2016)
Michael Furman Greene, MD (OB/Gyn 2013-2014)
James V. Hennessey, MD (Endocrinology 2013-2016)
L. David Hillis, MD (Cardiology 2013–2014)
Donald M. Hilty, MD (Psychiatry 2013)
S. Andrew Josephson, MD (Neurology 2013-2015)
Richard A. Lange, MD, MBA (Cardiology 2013–2014)
Paul A. Monach, MD (Rheumatology 2013-2015)
Anju Nohria, MD (Cardiology 2015)
Timothy T. Nostrant, MD (Gastroenterology 2013–2015)
Arturo P. Saavedra, MD, PhD, MBA (Dermatology 2013–2015)
Paul E. Sax, MD (Infectious Diseases 2013)

Content Programs

Cardiology »
Cleveland Clinic
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Pulmonology »
University of Colorado School of Medicine
Infectious Disease »
Emory University
Gastroenterology »
Massachusetts General Hospital
Endocrinology »
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Rheumatology »
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Hematology »
Stanford University Medical Center
Oncology »
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Nephrology/Urology »
Mayo Clinic
Neurology »
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Psychiatry »
McLean Hospital
Dermatology »
The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Allergy/Immunology »
University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics
Otolaryngology »
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
OB/GYN »
University of Maryland Medical Center
Ophthalmology »
Wills Eye Institute

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Lois Dehls Cornell, Executive Vice President

Committee on Publications
Lynda M. Young, MD, Chair
Stuart B. Mushlin, MD, Vice Chair

Edward W. Boyer, MD; Paul M. Copeland, MD; James A. Feldman; S. Jay Jaysankar, MD; Paul M. Ridker, MD; John B. Wong, MD; Beverly Woo, MD

Vice President for Publishing
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Complete List of Contributors by Specialty

Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Cardiology

Cleveland Clinic

Site Director
Benico Barzilai, MD

Contributors
Kia Afshar, MD
Justin M. Dunn, MD, MPH
Andrew L. Goodman, MD
James E. Lai, MD
Junyang Lou, MD, PhD
Michael D. McCulloch, MD
Parag R. Patel, MD
Marwa A. Sabe, MD
Todd Senn, MD
Brian Stegman, MD
Amanda Vest, MD

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Site Director
Amit Khera, MD, MSc

Contributors
Anish B. Bhatt, MD
Sonia Garg, MD
Hurst M. Hall, MD
Elizabeth A. Hardin, MD
Houman Khalili, MD
David Lofthus, MD
Phuong-Khanh J. Nguyen-Trong, MD
Andre Paixao, MD
Vishal Patel, MD
Vijay Raja, MD
Christopher Regan, MD
Monika Sanghavi, MD
Jainy Savla, MD

Pulmonology

University of Colorado School of Medicine
Site Director
Mark W. Geraci, MD

Contributors

Walter D. Conwell, MD
Silpa Dhoma, MD
Gregory A. Hickey, MD
Christine M. Lin, MD
Derek Linderman, MD
Madison Macht, MD
Susan K. Mathai, MD
Michael Mohning, MD
Steven Pugliese, MD
Jeffrey C. Robinson, MD
Marvin I. Schwarz, MD
Alexandra Smart, MD
George M. Solomon, MD
Peter Sottile, MD
Amanda Stream, MD
Andrew Waas, MD

Infectious Diseases

Emory University
Site Director
Wendy S. Armstrong, MD

Contributors
Sol Aldrete, MD
Valeria Cantos, MD
Emily J. Cartwright, MD
Jonathan Colasanti, MD, MSPH
Cecile Delille, MD, MSc
Jessica Fairley, MD
Mary Foote, MD, MPH
Rachel Friedman-Moraco, MD
Emily P. Hyle, MD
Jesse T. Jacob, MD
Sheetal Kandiah, MD, MPH
Colleen F. Kelley, MD, MPH
Colleen S. Kraft, MD, MSc
Aneesh K. Mehta, MD
Andre Melendez, MD
Varun K. Phadke, MD
Paulina Rebolledo, MD, MSc
Marcos Schechter, MD
Jay B. Varkey, MD
Brian R. Wood, MD

Gastroenterology

Massachusetts General Hospital

Site Directors
Andrew T. Chan, MD
Daniel S. Pratt, MD

Contributors
Nitin K. Gupta, MD
Lindsay Y. King, MD
Gauree Gupta Konijeti, MD, MPH
Jay Luther, MD
Joanna M. Peloquin, MD
Ying Wu, MD

Endocrinology

Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Site Director
Robert G. Dluhy, MD

Contributors
Tobin M. Abraham, MD
Adi Barlev-Ehrenberg, MD, MS
Ole-Petter R. Hamnvik, MD
Norra Kwong, MD
Eva S. Liu, MD
Anna L. Ross, MD
Chevon M. Rariy, MD
Amir Tirosh, MD, PhD

Rheumatology

Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Site Director
Simon M. Helfgott, MD

Contributors
Fadi Badlissi, MD
Medha Barbhaiya, MD
Mollie Nicole Carruthers, MD
Candace H. Feldman, MD, MPH
Lydia Gedmintas, MD, MPH
Eli Miloslavsky, MD
Jennifer Meara Nashel, MD
Monica P. Ramirez, MD, MPH
Deepak A. Rao, MD, PhD
Naina Rastalsky, MD
Jeffrey A. Sparks, MD

Hematology

Stanford University Medical Center
Site Director
Jason Robert Gotlib, MD

Contributors
Oyebimpe Adesina, MD
Anosheh Afghahi, MD
Caroline Berube, MD
Rondeep S. Brar, MD
Steven Chan, MD
Shira Dinner, MD
Magali Fontaine, MD, PhD
Wan-Jen Hong, MD
David J. Iberri, MD
Brian A. Jonas, MD, PhD
Michael Khodadoust, MD, PhD
David Kurtz, MD
Lawrence Leung, MD
Lauren Maeda, MD
Beth A. Martin, MD
Everett Meyer, MD
Siddhartha Mitra, MD, PhD
Rupa Narayan, MD
David Nguyen, MD
Mary-Elizabeth Muchmore Percival, MD
Elie Richa, MD
Gabriel Rivera, MD
Stanley Schrier, MD
Alexander Ungewickell, MD, PhD
James L. Zehnder, MD

Oncology

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Site Director
Ahmed Eid, MD, MEd

Contributors
Carlos H. Barcenas, MD, MSc
Isabella C. Glitza, MD, PhD
Marc S. Hoffmann, MD
Sylvia Jaramillo, MD
Meghan S. Karuturi, MD
Syed Mohamman Ali Kazmi, MD
John Linford, MD
Marc Matrana, MD
Van Morris, MD
Sarah Mougalian, MD
Krina Patel, MD
Kanwal P. Raghav, MD
Ishwaria Subbiah, MD
Nizar M. Tannir, MD
Jennifer Wang, MD
Jeff Yorio, MD
Alex Zarzour, MD

Nephrology/Urology

Mayo Clinic

Site Director
Suzanne M. Norby, MD

Contributors
Hatem Amer, MD
Bhavna Chopra, MD
Mireille El Ters, MD
Ziad M. El-Zoghby, MD
Sandra M. Herrmann, MD
Musab S. Hommos, MD
Kianoush B. Kashani, MD
Mira T. Keddis, MD
Angela K. Muriithi, MD
Carlos R. Franco Palacios, MD
Qi Qian, MD
Michael Selby, MD
Ladan Zand, MD

Neurology

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Site Director
Peter W. Kaplan, MD

Contributors
Charlene E. Gamaldo, MD
Lindsey Hayes, MD, PhD
Rafael H. Llinás, MD
Thomas E. Lloyd, MD, PhD
Zoltan Mari, MD
Elisabeth B. Marsh, MD
Abhay R. Moghekar, MD
Payam Mohassel, MD
Aruna Rao, MD
Jack Ratchford, MD, MSc
Jason Rosenberg, MD

Psychiatry

McLean Hospital

Site Director
Felicia Anne Smith, MD

Contributors
Eugene Victor Beresin, MD
Christina Brezing, MD
Stephanie Cincotta, MD
Jennifer Gatchel, MD, PhD
Alex S. Keuroghlian, MD, MSc
Rachel Ross, MD, PhD
Kathy Sanders, MD
Theodore Allan Stern, MD
John Taylor, MD, MBA
Oriana Vesga Lopez, MD
Heather Vestal, MD, MHS
Ying Wang, MD
Lazaro Zayas Jr., MD

Dermatology

The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

Site Director
Misha A. Rosenbach, MD

Contributors
Robert G. Micheletti, MD
Lisa K. Pappas-Taffer, MD
Evan W. Piette, MD
James R. Treat, MD
Karolyn A. Wanat, MD

Allergy/Immunology

University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics

Site Director
James E. Gern, MD

Contributors
Mark H. Moss, MD
Robert F. Lemanske Jr., MD
Sujani Kakumanu, MD
William Busse, MD
Christine M. Seroogy, MD
Sameer K. Mathur, MD, PhD
Daniel J. Jackson, MD

Otolaryngology

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary

Site Director
Stacey Tutt Gray, MD

Contributors
Megan M. Abbott, MD, MPH
Dunia Abdul-Aziz, MD
Margaret S. Carter, MD
Gillian Diercks, MD
Rebecca J. Hammon, MD
Elliott Kozin, MD
Aaron Remenschneider, MD, MPH
Daniel Roberts, MD, PhD

OB/GYN

University of Maryland Medical Center

Site Director
May Hsieh Blanchard, MD

Contributors
Kiranpreet K. Chawla, MD
Katrina S. Mark, MD
Vadim M. Morozov, MD

Ophthalmology

Wills Eye Institute

Site Directors
Brad H. Feldman, MD
Sagun Pendse, MD

Contributors
David R. Lally, MD
Jared D. Peterson, MD
David A. Salz, MD
Adiel G. Smith, MD

General Medicine

Indiana University School of Medicine

Site Director
Curtis A. Wright, MD

Contributors
James M. Hotz, MD
Archana M. Mahankali, MD
Joshua D. Pinner, MD
Allyson Thomas, MD